On the development of sports in the Republic of Kazakhstan
Under the state program for development of physical culture and sports for the period 2007-2011 provisions are made for the execution of the following tasks:
- improvement of the legal and regulatory framework;
- development of sports infrastructure that meets international standards;
- provision of qualified experts;
- development of sports science;
- formation of a healthy way of living of the population by means of physical culture and sports;
- improvement of the training system of the sports reserve and world class athletes.
An important line of activity on the development of physical culture and sports is the development of the legal and regulatory framework of the industry.
For the improvement of the legislation the draft Law "On Amendments and Additions to the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Physical Culture and Sports" to state agencies is introduced.
The development of material and technical base in the country should be carried out in two directions - for the mass sports and for the high performance sport.
There is a task to ensure the construction of model health and fitness centers in every district center and city of the country, as well as modern sports facilities in various parts of the country that meet international standards and meet the needs of national teams.
To solve this problem, MTS of the Republic of Kazakhstan held a creative contest for the conceptual design of a model fitness center for future use in the design and construction.
One of the main factors that influence the industry development is the availability of qualified experts. In this regard, the Ministry of Tourism and Sports has undertaken the following steps:
- entered into contracts with coaches and athletes, who are able to show high sports results at the Olympic and Asian Games;
- invited coaches and foreign experts to work with national teams in various sports;
- increased financial incentives for successful performance of athletes at the Olympic Games;
- increased wages of the coaches of national teams in various sports and the leaders of national sports organizations.
The issues of creation of the following objects are being thrashed out:
- centers for professional advancements for professionals of physical culture and sports industry;
- research institute for the high performance sport;
- four specialized centers for Olympic training in boxing, wrestling, cycling and weightlifting.
In order to boost mass sports the Ministry envisages the revival of the departmental voluntary sports societies, the creation of which will ensure massive involvement of the public to systematic pursuits of physical culture and sports. Particular attention will be paid to the development of national sports.
To improve the physical education of children of school age in secondary general education schools the third hour and four hours per week of physical education in specialized secondary and higher education institutions are introduced.
Upon the initiative of the Ministry, Almaty city Akimat and the NOC of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Olympic Council of Asia decided to hold the 7th Winter Asian Games of 2011 in Almaty. Hosting the Asian Games - 2011 is a serious political decision, which will not only promote the image of Kazakhstan, but also will create an infrastructure for winter sports in the country.
In compliance with the requirements of the International Olympic Committee and the Olympic Council of Asia, for the competition in 12 sports it is necessary to build the following sports facilities in Almaty:
- Ice Universal Sports Palace with 15-20 thousand seats;
- Springboards K-120 and K-90 with tribunes for 8000 spectators;
- 5000 seat-stadium for the biathlon;
- Ski stadium with tribunes for 8000 spectators;
- "Kumbel" ski base with 24 000 spectator seats;
- Olympic Village;
- To carry out the reconstruction of the Baluan Sholak Palace of Sports and the “Medeo” mountain skating rink.
One of the major tasks is the successful performance of Kazakhstani athletes at the Olympic Games in Beijing. A cooperation program in the field of sports between the MTS of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the State General Office of Sports of the PRC was signed. The document defines the goals and objectives of the parties upon creation of conditions and the development of direct ties between the institutions of sports on the threshold of the Olympic Games in 2008 in Beijing. In particular, the participation of athletes of national teams in various sports in the test and acclimatization competitions, carrying out of sports events to adapt Kazakhstani athletes to climatic conditions of China, as well as establishing contacts for cooperation in the field of sports science and sports medicine.
Caring about health of the people, especially the younger generation is a priority to ensure a healthy gene pool and demographic population growth, fostering the economy and protection of the state.
The State Program for the development of physical culture and sports in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2001 - 2005 (hereinafter - the state program) is designed in accordance with the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Physical Culture and Sports" of December 2, 1999 N 490.
The state program covers the basic aspects of physical education of children of preschool age, pupils, and students, the population of middle and senior ages, persons with disabilities, as well as training of the sports reserve and world-class athletes, provides measures for strengthening and development of the material and technical base of physical culture and sports, the creation of scientific – research base and improvement of the regulatory - legal framework.
This state program is a logical continuation of the State Program for the development of mass sports in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 1996 - 2000, the implementation of which let athletic - sports organizations and local executive bodies of the republic to focus on the development of mass sports, the formation of healthy lifestyle principles, and training of world-class athletes and the sports reserve.
As a result of the previous program, the number of persons engaged in physical culture and sports in the country has increased by 24.1 percent, the number of carried out mass athletic - sports events has increased significantly, the practice of carrying out industry Spartakiads, school Spartakiads and student competitions has revived. The reduction of the network of children - youth sports schools and Olympic reserve schools was halted. At present, the republic has more than 290 sports schools, which engage about 134,000 children and adolescents. The number of out of school institutions has increased, the work in the community has been intensified.
Six boarding schools for children gifted in sports were newly created, that led to an increase in a number of students of boarding schools from 942 to 2385 people. The work on the creation of regional centers for training the sports reserve has begun, the presidential physical fitness tests of the population have been developed and are being introduced successfully. The works in the country to create professional sports clubs, clubs in the community and family sports clubs are in progress, the efforts in promoting healthy lifestyle principles by means of physical culture and sports are intensified.
At the same time the state of sports base, an underdeveloped network of children - youth sports schools, which allows the organization of classes for only 7 percent of school-age children of the republic, the shortage of highly qualified trainers - educators do not allow to satisfy the broad needs of the population in exercise sessions, especially those of children and teenagers. The lack of modern sports facilities, equipped with quality inventory and equipment, centers for training the sports reserve and Olympic training centers inhibits the growth of sportsmanship and the preparation of the sports reserve in the country.
Further development of physical culture and sports, and training of the sports reserve and world-class athletes require new approaches in the organization of mass physical culture and educational - training process to reflect the rapidly changing requirements of international sports organizations.
The development of the State program is dictated by the need to make changes to the organizational and legal relations that have developed in the field of physical culture and sports, maintain a high image of sports of Kazakhstan in the international arena, involve broad segments of the population in systematic exercises, and the need to introduce healthy lifestyle principles by promoting physical culture and sports.
1. Analysis of the current state of the problem in the field of physical culture and sports
The state of physical culture and elite sports in the Republic of Kazakhstan, and modern tendencies of development of world sports show that without urgent radical measures for the development of sports in the Republic of Kazakhstan performance indicators of Kazakhstani athletes in the world arena are going to decline.
A lag behind international standards is primarily due to the lack of modern sports base, that would meet the requirements of the highest international standards of today. The level of modern sports has reached the stage of development when an important role in improving athletic performance is given to the new approaches based on scientific and engineering research. New sports arenas, the latest achievements in the creation of special conditions for training and competitions and construction and application of special equipment resulted in a dramatic improvement of the performance of top athletes of the world and set out key trends of sustainable development with which sports step into the XXI century.
The state of the material and technical base of physical culture and sports in the country today does not meet the needs of people in physical exercise; there are a lack of physical training professionals in organizations, an acute shortage of sports facilities in enterprises, communities and places of public recreation, as well as elementary sports inventory and facilities.
The absence of the required level of physical activity among the population of the country is one of the factors influencing the level of life expectancy and causing a high percentage of deaths from cardio - vascular diseases and respiratory diseases. Depending on the region of residence only 5 to 10.5 percent of the population of the country regularly engage in physical culture and sports.
The development of sports in education does not receive sufficient attention as well. The 56.5 percent of general education institutions of the republic have typical gyms and 14.9 per cent have adapted sports facilities. The volume of physical education training classes in secondary and general professional education institutions of the republic is 3 - 4 times lower than that of the science-based norms. In order to achieve the planned level of scientifically based physical activity it is necessary to introduce compulsory third hour of physical education per week in general education institutions and provide the educational process with sports gear and equipment.
Extra-curricular athletic - recreational and after-school mass-sports activities have not received their further development. The increase in the number of children and adolescents with various confirmed colds and chronic diseases continued. At the same time classes for students, classified for reasons of health to special medical teams, are conducted only in certain schools.
In general, the state of athletic - recreational and sports activities requires urgent and concrete measures for further development of mass sports, enhancing athletic - recreation activities among the population, and training the sports reserve and world-class athletes.
2. Main goals and objectives
The state regulates relations in the field of physical culture and sports through the formation of public policy, creation of an appropriate financial, material and technical, human, scientific - methodical, medical, informational, normative - legal support of the development of physical culture and sports, creation of conditions for increasing the number of children - youth sports schools of all types, sports and children's clubs by place of residence of citizens, specialized groups for the disabled, medical - physical fitness dispensaries, strengthening their material - technical base.
Main goals of the State program:
- further development of physical culture and sports in the country;
- creation of conditions for employment of people in physical culture and sports, development of Olympic, national, technical, applied sports and folk games;
- identification of rational ways and modern approaches to the management of industry;
- improvement of legislation in the field of physical culture and sports;
- to conduct research in the field of sports and professional sports on ensuring provision of the sports reserve and world-class athletes with scientific - methodical, medical - biological and psychological training;
- to train the sports reserve and world-class athletes.
Main objectives of the State program:
- adoption of healthy lifestyle principles by promoting physical culture and sports, attracting the general public to systematic physical exercises;
- implementation of presidential physical fitness tests of the population;
- strengthening and developing the material - technical base of physical culture and sports, ensuring availability of sports facilities for the general population;
- involvement of unemployed and not-studying youth in physical culture and sports for crime prevention;
- revitalization of athletic - sports associations and sports clubs;
- developing a network of children - youth sports schools and schools of the Olympic reserve, creation of boarding schools for children gifted in sports, regional centers for training the Olympic reserve, national Olympic training centers;
- strengthening informational - educational and outreach activities for physical culture and sports;
- establishing a system of training and retraining of sports personnel for elite sport, and for working with various social - demographic groups;
- intensifying efforts in establishing and developing international relations with foreign athletic - recreational and sports organizations for exchanging experiences and the implementation of advanced technologies in the field of physical culture and sports.
3. Main directions for the development of physical culture and sports
The state program provides basic directions for the development of athletic - recreational and mass-sports activities as the means of a healthy lifestyle, work rehabilitation, active longevity, increasing the employment of children, adolescents and youth in sports sections for the purpose of crime prevention, as well as a program - methodical support of the physical education processes, training the sports reserve and high-class athletes who can worthily represent Kazakhstan in the international venue.
The state program provides a differentiated approach to physical education of the population of different age groups.
Physical education of children of preschool age
The vitally important motor skills are developed in children at an early age, the child learns to walk, sit, stand, perform simple physical exercises, navigate in space, take tempering procedures, produces a habit of daily athletic – sports activities, which is the basis of a healthy lifestyle. The organization of physical education of children in this age group requires training them in preschools and in family in the emotional - game form, usually outdoors, and a continual update of their content.
Physical exercises should have versatile physical training at their core, which increases the functionality of children, developing all the physical qualities of the body. Leading scientists in the field of pediatrics, physical culture and sports recommend the amount of physical activity for this age group to be at least 10 - 12 hours per week.
The main directions in this task are:
- create a material base in pre-school educational institutions and in place of residence of the population;
- develop and implement training programs for physical education in preschool institutions;
- develop manuals and guidelines for parents on physical education of children of preschool age in the family.
Physical education of pupils and students
Physical education of pupils and students is intended to ensure a high demand for systematic physical culture and sports activities, and a healthy lifestyle. A gradual transition from the academic to extracurricular and non-class-based work is necessary, turning mandatory physical culture classes into lessons of physical education. In classes the efficient use of factors of nature, combining work and leisure, the basics of physical training, self-massage and safety techniques, combining the amount and intensity of the load, the proper execution of exercises and their sequence, the necessary amount of theoretical knowledge about the physiology of the body, hygiene of physical training must be taught.
Physical education of pupils and students is intended to ensure the development and the improvement of basic motor characteristics, physical development and health promotion, educating a perceived need for a healthy lifestyle.
In order to implement this task, the following must be provided:
- an introduction of a compulsory third hour of physical culture and sports in general and secondary educational organizations, and four hours per week of compulsory physical training in primary, secondary and higher educational institutions;
- improving extra-curricular forms of physical culture that supplement the content of lessons, the development of advanced versions of training programs for further transition from compulsory physical education lessons to training in sports, taking into account the interests of students;
- improving the system of out-of-class, extra-curricular and non-class-based activities with pupils and students taking into account the development of their physiological characteristics;
- organization and hosting the winter and summer spartakiads for school children, sports festivals for students of specialized secondary educational institutions, and student Universiades;
- pupils’ and students’ employment in active physical training and sports for at least 8 - 10 hours per week.
Physical training of working people and the elderly
Physical training of working people and the elderly aims to maintain and promote health, prevent diseases and increase the creative and vital activity.
The introduction of physical culture and sports to the system of organization of labor and leisure of citizens, and strengthening the recreational content of activities in industrial gymnastics and in therapeutic physical training should be tailored to professional and age characteristics of workers for the efficient use of physical exercises to extend a lifespan of the labor activity.
It is necessary to provide the conditions for the employment in active physical training and sports during the off-hours for at least 3 - 4.5 hours per week, which requires to:
- implement physical culture and sports into the system of organization of labor and leisure through collective agreements between employers and labor groups;
- create the conditions for physical exercise and active leisure in organizations and in places of public recreation;
- develop methodical guidelines for working people and senior citizens;
- use the means of physical culture and sports for optimization of the motor modes of working people and the elderly to promote active longevity and engage the disabled in physical training;
- implement a professional - applied physical training;
- organize sports - recreational and mass-sports events.
Physical culture and sports among the disabled
Physical culture and sports among the disabled creates the necessary conditions for their psychological adaptation in society. Participation in sports events restores mental balance, returns a sense of confidence and respect for themselves and allows to return to active life, despite their disabilities.
Physical culture and sports among the disabled provides comprehensive physical rehabilitation, expansion of their capabilities for orientation in the environment, knowledge of their own bodies, and social adaptation.
- creating the necessary conditions for the employment of disabled people in physical culture and sports;
- developing guidelines for the rehabilitation of the disabled by means of physical culture and sports;
- organizing and conducting sports - recreational and sports events;
- providing assistance in participation and preparation for international competitions.
The development of national, technical, applied sports and folk games
National sports and folk games are an integral part of a harmonious upbringing of the younger generation. In today's athletic practice it is necessary to use a worked-out and tested for centuries wealth of experience in educating the younger generation by means of folk games and national sports. This inexhaustible treasure of folk pedagogy is still effective in the present conditions, as it contains recipes needed for the establishment of healthy lifestyle principles and the development of sports - recreational and mass-sports activities among the population. Concrete measures should be taken in furthering the development of national sports and folk games, unveiling their applied nature and salubrity potential. The development of national sports and folk games plays an important role in the process of the interpenetration of cultures of people living in Kazakhstan.
The development of technical and applied sports provides physical training of young people, an improvement of special physical qualities, a formation of military - technical and applied skills. The employment of the population in these sports contributes to the development of creative thinking and the improvement of the technical literacy.
The development of national, technical, applied sports and folk games requires the creation of:
- conditions for the development of national, technical, applied sports and folk games, and their implementation into the system of modern physical education;
- the network of children-youth sports schools;
- the domestic production of horse ammunition, sports uniforms, sports inventory and equipment for the national sports, a construction of special sports facilities and race tracks;
- the national center for the development of national sports and folk games, sports clubs for the national kokpar game, as well as their promotion overseas.
Training the sports reserve.
It is necessary to create a sports reserve training system, which includes children-youth sports schools, Olympic reserve schools, regional boarding schools for children gifted in sports, Olympic reserve training centers in various sports. It is necessary to revive national competitions among school children and college students.
In order to ensure the quality training of the sports reserve the following activities need to be continued:
- developing a network of children-youth sports schools and Olympic reserve schools;
- creating boarding schools for children gifted in sports in all regions of the country;
- creating Olympic reserve training centers;
- developing material and technical base, and its provision with modern inventory and equipment.
Training world-class athletes
One of the main directions of training world-class athletes is a centralized educational-training process in national teams of the country. It is necessary to provide for the establishment of unified Olympic training complex centers, which should include the full cycle of the facilities necessary for the training process, including the creation of the modern field-and-track kernel, swimming pools, specialized sports halls, exercise room with sports equipment, a system of recreational equipment. At the same time sporting facilities must meet the requirements of both the normal process of general physical training and specificity of a particular sport. It is necessary to define and create republic sports centers in some cities, and mini – centers in others, where the training of athletes would be concentrated at the local level.
Training high class athletes requires:
- creation of the material and technical base for elite sport, its provision with modern inventory and equipment;
- creation of sports clubs for various sports games;
- participation of nation teams of the republic in international competitions, including world championships, Asian championships, Olympic and Asian Games, and other international sporting events.
Scientific - methodical and medical support
For sustainable, balanced development of sports on predictable basis, taking into account the latest achievements of scientific and technological ideas, it is necessary to create the state scientific - research center, equipped with the appropriate modern equipment, which would be the center for research and development in the field of mass physical culture and sports.
This proposal fully applies to the medical support during training and competition processes. Currently, the development of sport is such that the first role belongs to the level of medical and biological control of sports activities based on the latest achievements in this field.
Scientific-methodical and medical support implies:
- creation of the scientific research institute for studying issues in mass physical culture and elite sport;
- conducting a research on improving the rehabilitation system and physical education of the population;
- optimization of the training system of the sports reserve and world-class athletes;
- methodical and medical - biological provision of the educational - training process;
- psychological preparation of athletes;
- prevention of sports injuries, treatment and rehabilitation, medical provision of the educational-training process;
- equipping the Republican anti-doping laboratory of the athletes with special equipment;
- creation of regional medical - physical dispensaries;
- organizing the network of health centers.
Training of personnel and the career development system
In order to successfully solve the problems of development of mass physical culture and elite sport it is necessary to provide the industry with coaching - teaching staff, taking into account the introduction of new disciplines (martial arts, national and applied sports, folk games), as well as to improve the system of training and retraining of the physical culture and sports staff.
At present, Kazakhstan's sports industry experiences a shortage in highly qualified coaches. Modern sport is particularly susceptible to a variety of innovations, and requires special attention to the training of specialists who know the latest methods of working with athletes.
In this connection it is necessary to:
- organize the training of the leading coaches in the country in foreign sports centers;
- provide the training and retraining of specialists in the field of physical culture and sports to the needs of the regions.
The Development of the material and technical basis
A network of sports - recreational and sports facilities of the country is characterized by their insufficient quantity, mostly of low quality and uneven distribution.
It is necessary to create the conditions for physical culture and sports for all population groups, especially children, adolescents and young people, effectively use existing sports - recreational and sports facilities, provide the necessary level of service in these facilities, their availability and appeal.
Development of the material - technical base in the country must be implemented by means of:
- reconstruction and renovation of existing sports facilities, the existing athletic fields, equipping gyms and sports complexes with small-size universal exercise equipment;
- construction of athletic fields, gyms and other facilities in places of public accommodation and recreation;
- design and construction of playgrounds and recreational areas, running tracks, biking and ski trails, equipping the areas for mass sports competitions in residential areas
- extensive use of existing sports facilities for the sports - recreation activities with the public.
Management system of physical education of the population and research in the field of physical culture and sports
Overall management of physical education in the country is carried out by the authorized agency for physical culture and sports. Local executive bodies create territorial subdivisions of the management of physical education of the population up to the district level, develop directions of work with the population of regions, taking into account the basic requirements for mass-athletic and sports activities, training the sports reserve and world-class athletes, develop the material - technical basis of physical culture and sports.
Central and local executive bodies contribute to the organization and conduct of fundamental, applied and sociological studies, which enrich the practice of mass physical culture and elite sport.
Improvement of normative - legal framework
The development of mass physical culture and elite sport will require an improvement of the regulatory - legal framework, including:
• the adoption of standards for availability of sports facilities in residential areas;
• the adoption of standards for availability of sports facilities in preschool institutions and educational institutions.
Informational-outreach activities imply:
- promoting healthy lifestyle;
- outreach about the health benefits of physical exercises.
Outreach activities must be based on a comprehensive explanation of the necessity of a diversified physical training, and have a scientific basis.
Promoting physical activity and sports should be implemented by recruiting famous athletes, champions and medalists of world and Asian championships, the Olympic and Asian Games, honored masters of sport and leading trainers – educators to work with public.
It is necessary to provide publications of popular issues, manuals, and other visual aids that enhance the level of self-education of citizens, formation of a stable interest in the systematic physical culture and sports.
4. Program financing
Financing the State program will be carried out with funds provided by the state budget for the development of physical culture and sports, with attraction of other sources not prohibited by the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Annual funding from the state budget of the activities, included in the State program, will be established by the law on the national budget and the decisions of Maslikhats on the approval of local budgets for the corresponding financial year.
5. Expected results
A confirmation of healthy lifestyle principles in the society, and creation of conditions for the improvement of the demographic situation.
Increasing the number of citizens, who actually engage in physical culture and sports, by 10-15 percent, and, as a result, reducing a morbidity level of the population.
Increasing the number of children and adolescents involved in sports sections of children - youth sports schools of the republic up to 180 - 200 thousands, reducing the crime rate among the younger generation.
Creating boarding schools for children gifted in sports in all regions of the country.
Increasing the number of world-class athletes and a prospective sports reserve – candidates to national teams of Kazakhstan.
Attracting young people to active engagement in sports by means of development of national, applied and technical types of sports and folk games.
Creating conditions for the preparation of world-class athletes who can maintain the image of Kazakhstan in an international sports arena.
Commentary to the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On the state program of development of physical culture and sports in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2001 - 2005"
The head of state signed a decree approving the state program of development of physical culture and sports in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2001 - 2005.
Activities, previously provided in the State Program of development of mass sports in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 1996 – 2000, the execution of which is now completed, found their further development in the program.
The applicability of adopting the program for 2001 – 2005 is determined by the need to take urgent measures for the development of physical culture and mass sports, and education of athletes, capable of maintaining the image of Kazakhstani sport in the international sports arena.
The program takes into account proposals of the central and local executive bodies, as well as the country's leading scientists in the field of physical culture and sports.
This program defines the goals, objectives and major directions of sports - recreational and mass-sports public activities, training and provision of the sports reserve and world-class athletes.
The decree envisages that the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan will develop a state program implementation plan in a month’s time. Such an approach will allow to focus the attention of executive bodies and athletic - sports organizations of the republic on major issues of physical culture and sports, to respond flexibly to changing situations in the field of mass sport and elite sport, to ensure the effectiveness of organizational measures, and will lead to real results.
The implementation of program activities will facilitate the promotion of healthy lifestyle principles, a further development of physical culture and sports in the country, the increase in the number of people, who actually engage in physical culture and sports, a creation of the conditions for the preparation of the sports reserve and world-class athletes, the development of a network of children - youth sports schools, boarding schools for children gifted in sports, sports reserve training centers and centers of Olympic training, increasing the employment of children and adolescents in sports sections and clubs.
Program activities are aimed at the development of Olympic, applied, and traditional types of sports and folk games, they contribute to the creation and strengthening of the material and technical base of physical culture and sports, increasing its availability to the general public.